Basics of drawing



I talk about the way of teaching, which allowed me to complete a school course for four months and enroll on the first try at a prestigious art institute, gaining 298 points from 300 possible exams. I hope my experience will help you too. After studying the material you will understand that drawing is not such a complex science, as it seems at first glance. It is very important to visit the page on how to hold a pencil in your hand. before starting to learn the basics of a drawing. This knowledge is necessary for the correct setting of the hand. Study the material, I'll wait for you.

Basics of drawing

Begining:

If you are a novice artist you need a basic knowledge of the basics of drawing. Do not look at the work of great artists, you will understand them a little later. Concentrate on yourself. And we will begin with an understanding of the picture itself.

All objects are in space, they are shrouded in it, harmoniously fit into it and obey its laws. In the simplest still life it is necessary to perceive not individual objects, but the whole ensemble, consonance of lines and forms. You need to look at it as a continuous tandem of lines, shapes, light and shadow. A drawing is a conditional space of a paper in which there is a subject plane, proportional ratios of all objects and a light-shadow distributed according to the shape of objects.

The main elements of graphical arts:

Flat shapes (two-dimensional):



Volumetric shapes (three-dimensional):



All objects, one way or another, have in themselves, in their basis of construction, these figures.

The cube is the basis of the three-dimensional image in the conditional space of the sheet:

Basics of drawing. Understanding.
First, I want to tell you a little story about a little ant. Imagine? A small ant, climbed itself on the grass and came across something ... something unknown. He did not know himself (не знал раздельно, во всех случаях). And he wanted to know what had blocked his path. The ant with difficulty climbed something, climbed on all sides, far and wide, but did not understand anything. He did not understand because he himself was very small and saw only certain areas of the subject and could not make up a picture of him. Then he climbed up a tall tree, looked from above and saw the overall picture ....

Well, what he saw to us in principle is not important, but the meaning, I think, is clear. To make it faster and clearer, we start with the overall picture too.

Let's keep on. The cube is the basis of the three-dimensional image in the conventional space of the sheet. It has a vertical, horizontal and depth. It's himself laid the understanding of the picture in general. For starters, we will work with our cube. We will develop logical thinking on the analysis of the real form with the help of figurative constructions.

In the phrase "logical thinking" invested not so little. This is observation, and imagination, and fantasy, in the end, a special vision of the world, which in our case allows us to create the illusion of the visible world in the space of a sheet. We will learn to correctly see the volumetric shape of the object and logically consistently portray it on the understanding of our main working form - the cube.

In the phrase "logical thinking" invested not so little. This is observation, and imagination, and fantasy, in the end, a special vision of the world, which in our case allows us to create the illusion of the visible world in the space of a sheet. We will learn to correctly see the volumetric shape of the object and logically consistently portray it on the understanding of our main working form - the cube.

And before work, get rid of small formats. From now on, your main working paper format is A2. Go to large sizes, if you still have not done so. You can use 40/60 or 40/50 tablets or even more. At first it seems that in front of you is just a huge white wall and it is not at all clear how to fill it. Not scary. Remember this in a couple of weeks. Then the usual album list will seem to you tiny and completely uncomfortable.

Basics of drawing

Exercise 1: for understanding the basics of the picture:

We sit down at the easel, fasten to it a half sheet of paperman (you can use inexpensive paper, even wallpaper. Wallpapers are even better if your budget is limited and you don’t want to splurge on an expensive drawing paper). So let's start small. Draw a square. Try to draw as straight lines as possible, naturally, the opposite sides should be in a square parallel and equal.



What do we see? This is a simple square, which does not give us the feeling of conditional space in the sheet. Boring and not at all interesting. For now.

And now you need to turn the square into a cube. From the corners of the square, draw lines — facets into the distance; my slope is approximately equal to 45 degrees. Stick to these numbers. Well, we need to finish our cube, by sensation we define and draw the back side of the cube.



We have a cube, but so far no conditional space in the sheet is felt here either. You can easily confuse near and far edges. This is a flat pattern and nothing more. In order to feel the space in the sheet, planning must be present - some parts or objects will be closer to us, others further and this planning needs to be correctly conveyed. To begin, give it, and then think about the word "right." Plannedness is transmitted as follows: that side of the cube, which should be closer to us, should be clearer, transferred more actively. Take your coal or sanguine and bring this side more active.



Now we can clearly distinguish where the side of the cube is closest to us, and where is the furthest. So we quite simply and uncompromisingly handed over the planning, in order to achieve the result, to get the conditional space in the sheet. But that is not all. Now it's time to talk about the correct transfer of planning, that would get not a flat drawing, but a volume in the plane of the sheet. It sounds strange, but it is.

Let's train our logical thinking on the analysis of the real form - our cube. The cube is understood as the basis of the three-dimensional image in the conventional space of the sheet. It has a vertical, horizontal and depth. He himself laid the understanding of the picture in general.

All objects are in space, they are shrouded in it, harmoniously fit into it and obey its laws. We do not draft with you, we draw. And without an understanding of space, our drawing will look like a pitiful likeness of a drawing. In the space, there is air, all sides, edges, corners of the cube are shrouded in it. What we see in front of us we will see more clearly, that which is located towards us will fade away further due to the enveloped air. So we need to highlight what is closest to us, the nearest faces and corners of our cube.

To this we still need to add the following: where the breaks of the shape or the intersection of the planes occur must be distinguished, because this is some kind of action in the space of the sheet, an accent, not static, dynamic. But just like everything else, these accents will fade away as we move away from our eyes.

Now we are doing the following: we take and select the corners of our cube, since there is a break in the form. Angles will be most distinct. Select all the corners of the cube, but do not forget that the front corners to us will be more clearly expressed, as they are closer to us. The rear go into space and will tend to fade.





Once again, the near corners and sides will look clearer; those that go deeper will be done less clearly to achieve a sense of space, because everything that goes into perspective has a tendency to fade due to the surrounding air. The edges that go into perspective are less clearly drawn, and, besides, their clarity will fade out gradually. Invisible edges are needed to build. Here we take and single out what is closer to us, angles, sides, edges.

Draw lines starting from a corner towards another corner. In the middle of the edge, the clarity will be somewhat lower, since the voltage on the edge is less than in the angle. In general, in a drawing, a line should not be monotonous, where some kind of action, turn, intersection of lines occurs, it is clearer, stronger, more distinct. Where the voltage is less and the line is softer. So in our case here. I remind once again that what is closer to us and edges will be more pronounced, everything that goes into space, less pronounced, fades away. Look at the resulting pictures. Approximately as here and you should succeed. And here you have already created space in the sheet with the help of a simple figure.

If you understand what you are doing and know what I expect from you, this work does not seem difficult at all.

You can use sanguine, pastel, coal, draw with a pencil. If a pencil, it should be soft, M2 and higher.



Well, now let's draw the second in front of our cube! And all the conditions that apply to the first will apply to it. But notice the key word, "in front." Everything is exactly as we did before, we drew the first cube, but here now the second cube will be closer to us. And we must make it clearer than the first, so that our already created space in the sheet is preserved.

And then try to draw the third cube, which will be located behind the first two. Naturally, the third cube will be drawn much easier, softer than the previous ones.

Draw and invisible faces necessarily, the constructive beginning of the form should be shown. Figures should not run into and bump into each other; you should see and understand where one figure ends and another begins. Clearly.

The first cube is closer to us, which means it will look clearer. The second one is weaker and all its faces will be weaker than the far sides of the first cube, since the second is behind the first cube. This you must clearly understand, this is the basis of spatial vision, the basis of the picture.

Need training, practice, understanding. And once again, we draw a cube, which will be located in front of the first two. To be seen that he is ahead, you need to highlight it! So we highlight its sides and edges so that they are sharper than the sides and edges of the cubes in the background:



Make no mistake, this is not a simple drawing of a cube, it seems so at first glance. This system of teaching drawing has a small, but very cunning secret: perhaps you don’t notice that, but already at this simplest initial stage of training you learn:

1. Draw straight lines, your hand gets used to playing clear, conscious movements, the hand learns to hold a pencil and manage it consciously. Isn't it hard for you to draw straight lines now?

2. Already at this stage you begin to learn to perceive the sheet not as a plane, but as a conditional space.

3. You learn to create a volume, three-dimensional image in the space of a sheet.

4. Learn to transfer planarity in the space of a sheet and understand how to achieve this all.

5. To this can be added such an important moment as getting the skill of maintaining the correct shading, but more on that later.

This is how you start to receive a lot when you do this simple exercise. But you do it consciously, the most important thing. Especially not bothering, get basic knowledge to understand such an exact science, like drawing. This is the main advantage of this system of teaching drawing.

Written above to you so that you would understand the meaning of what is happening and take a closer look at these exercises. And if you understand what I am telling you, it means that logical thinking starts to work for you.




Fix the material covered, draw more, draw a lot. Learn to work with different material. Learn to "feel" it, where you need to push, where to draw a bold line, and where only to lightly outline it. When the movements of your hand are more confident, take a regular graphite pencil and work through the same more “strict” material (you can use a tablet). Pencil draw a little more difficult than for example with coal. But the principle you already know, and this is important. However, what you already know and understand, let your hands learn to obey you too. Take the softness pencil of the largest one that you have and try to vary the tonality by pressing.

All this work can be done on one sheet. But for us this will not be enough. Draw how much time and patience you have until everything is clear and competent.

REVERSING VISION

Try to draw already now not every cube separately, that is, when you draw one cube, you forget about the presence of the already drawn one. Try to see two dice at once, all at once. Constantly divert your attention to all the space of the sheet. Try it. Look at one point (on the face of the cube, for example), but notice everything else. Use "lateral" vision.

Already at this stage you learn to see the big picture, and not all separately. A common vision of the picture, the whole space of the paper , is developing. The eyes begin to see the relationship: volume to volume, angle to angle, height to width.



All corners of the cubes should be approximately the same, as we have at 45 degrees, all opposite sides are parallel, others are perpendicular, and this cannot be achieved if you do not watch everything that happens in your space, but you will look at everything in turn, separately one from another. In your sheet cubes can be located not only as soldiers, they can fly as they please. Do this exercise until you master it. Draw at the easel any material. Here are some examples of the task:



When the cube is placed like this:



The corner and edge nearest to us will be more active. We have to highlight them, everything else fades away. It doesn't matter how much paper you spend on this exercise. Do not use an eraser, better think once again. Until you learn this exercise, you cannot move to the second. Here you can learn quickly, but if you do not learn the basics, all the work will go to trash. No need now to seek beauty and purity in the picture. The main thing is that you do not get yourself confused in what you draw. The main thing now is to learn to understand what you are doing.



TIME AND TIMING

I do not know at what level you started training and what you can do. Because I can not give a clear answer, how many days you work this way. For whom the day will be enough, for someone a week, for others, more. One thing I can say for sure: until you understand this material, you shouldn’t forget about it and need to return to it if necessary. As for the quality of performance, the lines are not parallel, the angles are different, the figures are curves, it is dirty in the sheet - practice and time are needed. Immediately everything will not work. The same applies to each subsequent task.



---> The following exercises to learn the basics of drawing