Basics of drawing - part 2



Basics of drawing – article continuation. On the previous page Basics of drawing - part 1 (if you have not been there, you need to) we drew a cube in one position. We studied the basics of drawing with the help of this simplest form. We realized that you can create space in the sheet and began to develop logical thinking, thereby becoming a step higher in the matter of studying the picture. Also touched on a bit of material from this page. Let's continue to develop this topic.

Now we will learn to fill the space of the sheet with various shapes. All objects, one way or another, have in themselves, in their basis, the construction of such figures: a circle, a cone, a cube, or a combination of them. For now, let's choose the very familiar cube.

So, first draw one cube. We take any material - a pencil, coal or a sanguine and attach a sheet of paper to an easel. We draw. We select the faces and sides that will be closer to us; from the previous lesson we already know how to do it.



Farther. Now try to draw a cube that can already rotate in the space of the sheet. Turn a cube. Draw it in front of the previous one or behind it. Also, as before, highlight the near edges and sides of the cube more clearly, while trying as evenly as possible and more parallel to draw opposite sides of the cube faces opposite to each other. Do not forget about the tonal relations in the space of the sheet already these two figures. Look at the picture on the right. About this course of work you should have. You can shade one of the sides of the cube. At the same time, try to place the stroke too either parallel to the faces or diagonally, but in any case it should be possible even strokes (we get hatching skills). If you need to select an angle, for example, you can put a stroke in the opposite direction by already existing shading. Thus, the highlighted face and the angle will be emphasized. Just like the figures, the hatching will have different strength, tonality, depending on the location of this figure in the space of the sheet, that is: the first is before us, the second, or behind all those closest to us (plannedness).



First,try the lesson with soft material. Draw a little with coal, then take a pencil. Alternate the material. If you don’t bother with charcoal about whether you work cleanly or not, then by drawing with a pencil you will have an opportunity to try to do it more tactfully, more accurately. But the main task in drawing with a pencil is to acquire the skills to clearly depict what you need and the ability to analyze your workflow more. Each material gives us its own advantages and it is necessary to work with both.

When drawing a cube in different turns, you must constantly adhere to the fact that the lines of the opposite faces of the cube must be parallel, the corners are highlighted. The force of the pencil on the near (or distant) edges of one cube should be as much as possible. Both the left and the right side, both upper and lower. Keep an eye on this constantly and do not rush. Better think again.

Remember one more detail - from the angle to the angle the face of the cube should not be the same in tone. From the corner it goes stronger, its pitch drops to the middle, then increases as it approaches another corner. This is due to the fact that there are no clear strict lines in nature, since everything is in space, in the air. Drawing so you will be the most vivid in drawing, airiness.

Perhaps you have a question, "What about the perspective?" Of course, the perspective is important, everything that moves away from us in the future, both the figures and the same sides of the cube will go into the perspective and draw the cube itself, it would seem that it would be necessary with this in mind.
Do not touch the perspective yet !!! What is the perspective, when we are still unable to draw even smooth lines and a pencil falls from our hands? Let's imagine that at this stage it is generally not in nature for us. I'll give you a hint when we start to turn it on. For now let's do more important things that are important today and now. Learn to draw straight lines, achieve planarity when depicting figures.



Good. You have worked, your eyes are a little tired. Emotions all spilled out, it's time to give your eyes a little rest. Take a break. In general, in drawing it is very useful to take breaks, it is useful to work with separate jerks and to have a rest between them. When your eyes rest and brighten in your head, the work will open before you from the other side. You can sometimes see what in the process of work could simply not notice.

Have a rest? Are you aired? Oh well. We work on.

Get a few steps back from work. Now look on it with a fresh look and analyze:

Perhaps the lines are crooked, and the sides of the cubes are spreading in different directions, right? Well, not all at once. Although it is necessary to try, but here, first of all, practice is needed. It takes time to practice. But, nevertheless, let's analyze what we already have!

1. Have you drawn volumetric figures, transferred volume? Yep, you are.

2. Have you passed on planning? It can be seen where the near cube and where the distant? Yes.

3. Did you have space in the sheet? You are.

This is what we needed at this stage. So analytical thinking works for you. Well done! But if any item did not fall for you, you hurried. So, we work again, and once again we analyze everything step by step. Perhaps you did not understand the meaning of the first lesson and you need to return to it, read and work again to start a very important process in your mind-analytical thinking.

We continue.


Of course, the cube is not the only geometric figure. If you look at the objects around us, even on the structure of a person’s head, you can notice its constructive start: a ball (some people consider not a ball, but an oval) and a cone - the lower part of the head (in general) can fit into the volume of a person’s head. By and large, a person's head can also be inscribed in a square, but it is impossible to deny the presence of a cone and a ball, as a more detailed analysis of the design of the head. You can draw analogies with other objects, each object can be inscribed in one of the figures, or have them in its constructive beginning.



If you will draw, for example, the head of a person, then believe me, you will least think about the design of the head itself, since you simply do not have the practice of drawing them, there is no understanding how to draw. And to catch the volume of the head correctly and convey the characteristic features of it reliably, to put the light and shadow on the form correctly is a practically impossible task without an understanding of the basics and a constructive beginning.

We just learn the basics of the picture by analyzing the real forms that exist in absolutely any objects, we just isolated them from the crowd. So let's continue learning with simple examples to understand and gain skills and draw in space other shapes, rotate them in the sheet. Need practice and training.

Of course, taking into account what we already know: the edges, angles and sides nearest to us are made clearer, we single out, we focus attention on the nearby figures. Far, leaving in space of a leaf will be transferred softer. We draw with soft material, we look at the following picture on the left.

Well, now, after working with coal, work through the same, only not with soft material, but with a simple pencil. It is possible to use two or three pencils of various degrees of softness. What further draw with a HB pencil, for example. What will be closer for us is a soft 4B-8B.

Clean work is very important. We will learn this, but at this stage, the purity of performance is a minor thing for us. If you now have dirt in the work is not scary. Now you need to take care of understanding what you are doing. Let your hands are all in the corner and sanguine, let there be no trace left on the paper. No matter. Then you will see on your work that they will be more and more accurate. This is a matter of time and practice, nothing more.

Next...


It is possible to draw planes through the face that we select, also shading them. It should be remembered that, as each face of a figure located in space, in a certain place of space of our sheet will have its own degree of tonality, but will also be highlighted, as well as that face of the figure to which it adjoins. Of course, if one end of this plane does not go deep into the space of the sheet, then, in this case, it will tend to fade.



I will remind you. If the cube is positioned so that one corner of it is closer to us the most, then it will also be highlighted. That is, this angle will be accentuated more than all other faces and corners of this cube. But to all the other figures in this figure, this cube will generally be allocated according to its location relative to the others. Each figure in the conditional space of the sheet has its own place.

These exercises help to develop spatial vision in the sheet, where the sheet already appears to us not as a flat surface, but as a kind of environment in which the figures coexist, obeying the laws of the drawing.

It is also a good exercise for the correct setting of the hand — you learn to work in a large sheet format, learn to make meaningful precise movements.

On small formats to perform these exercises is not recommended. You have to work at the easel, keep the pencil on the stretched river or slightly bent, and the whole picture of what is happening should be revealed before your eyes.



Well, dear, not tired? Want more? Who says "Yes", please go to the next page, there we will do some more exercises with you, or rather, we will solve figuratively logical tasks. Click on the link.



I remind you of the importance of drawing sketches. I believe that sketches are of two types. The first is sketch-vision. This is certainly a search job, but more creative, more developed. Here our sensations, heart, state of mind, mood are more involved. Artists love such sketches.



The second is the sketch-search. Raw, constructive, just in them we "catch": movement, turns, volumes, design, color, texture and so on. These are works in the creation of which more cold calculation, thinking takes part, the brain and the eye work more than mental impulses. Such sketches are good because, on the basis of them, the idea has already come to create a well-developed version — a sketch. In the drawing they give more results, they concentrate attention, organize in the process, in difficult work they help to understand and work out difficult moments in it.

But, nevertheless, both the first and the second are important and necessary.